School Participatory Budgeting: 25 Frequently Asked Questions

by Tara Bartlett, Madison Rock, Kristi Tate and Daniel Schugurensky 

Participatory Governance Initiative (Arizona State University) Center for the Future of Arizona 

PDF icon Download School PB: 25 FAQ here




Participatory budgeting process on school safety 

In 2021, the Participatory Governance Initiative (PGI) and the Southwest Interdisciplinary Research Center (SIRC) partnered to assist a participatory budgeting process on school safety carried out by the Phoenix Union High School District. To help inform this process, PGI and SIRC produced two reports: one on the main research findings related to school resource officers, and the other on alternative programs to promote school safety.

Revisiting police presence on campus in post-covid times: the impact of school resource officers on student safety and school climate 2021

Phoenix Union High School District School Safety Alternative 2021


Documents are also available on the SIRC website:



School participatory budgeting: A toolkit for inclusive practice


by Tara Bartlett, Madison Rock, Daniel Schugurensky and Kristi Tate.


School Participatory Budgeting (SPB) empowers students to “learn democracy by doing” by deciding how district funds are used to improve their school communities and prepares young people to be active, informed, and engaged participants in civic life for the long term. The process builds student agency, confidence, communication, critical thinking and problem-solving skills. SPB stems from the widely adopted municipal PB model founded in 1989 in Porto Alegre, Brazil, both of which follow an iterative five step process of creating the rules and guidelines, collecting ideas, developing proposals, voting, and implementing winning projects. Phoenix Union High School District (PXU) in Arizona was the first to pilot the model with district dollars, scaling from one school in 2013-14 to district-wide expansion by 2019-20. In partnership with the Center for the Future of Arizona (CFA), the Participatory Budgeting Project (PBP), and the Participatory Governance Initiative (PGI), SPB is now being implemented in five Arizona cities with a reach upwards of 50,000 students every year and continued growth and adoption anticipated in the coming years. The Arizona SPB process has also sparked implementation in the U.S. and internationally.

The purpose of this toolkit is to share promising practices gleaned from the inclusive SPB model and developed in response to the inclusivity challenges noted above with practitioners and educators seeking to engage students with disabilities in the SPB process. The practices and lessons learned through this project serve as a promising model for other SPB processes in Arizona and around the world that are striving to increase inclusivity. 




School participatory budgeting: A toolkit for inclusive practice


Published in 2020



By the people: Participatory democracy, civic engagement, and citizenship education


Edited by

Won No, Ashley Brennan, and Daniel Schugurensky


This collection brings together writings on three related areas of theory, research, and practice that do not interact as often as they could: participatory democracy, civic engagement, and citizenship education. We believe academics, practitioners, and policy-makers working in these fields can benefit from each other’s contributions. That was the spirit of the Conference ‘By the People: Participatory Democracy, Civic Engagement, and Citizenship Education,’ hosted by the Participatory Governance Initiative of Arizona State University (ASU) in December 2015 in Tempe, Arizona. The conference coincided with the 800th anniversary of the Magna Carta. It was the fourth of a series that started in 2003 at the University of Toronto, Canada, followed by another in Toronto in 2008, and the third in Argentina in collaboration with the Universidad Nacional de Rosario in 2010.

Approximately 200 participants from all over the world gathered at the conference at ASU. Among them were undergraduate and graduate students, scholars, researchers, elected and appointed officials, teachers and school administrators, community organizers and practitioners from a variety of governmental and non-governmental agencies. During three days, conference participants exchanged ideas, research findings, and practical insights. They also shared lessons learned from the successes and failures of different types of projects. The conference had 55 sessions, organized in 12 roundtables, 37 panels, 4 workshops, and 2 plenary sessions.

After the conference ended, we invited presenters to submit a paper based on their presentations. The result is this volume with 34 chapters organized alphabetically in three main parts: the first deals with participatory democracy, the second with civic engagement, and the third with citizenship education.



By the people: Participatory democracy, civic engagement, and citizenship education


We believe that it is important to create more spaces to share and discuss theoretical insights, research findings, and reflections from practical interventions in the three fields to develop more synergies and interdisciplinary collaborations. We hope that this volume, which constitutes a sample of the approximately 200 presentations made at the conference, makes a modest contribution towards this effort.


Published 2017


Participatory Governance Initiative

Arizona State University


411 N. Central Ave, Suite 400,
Phoenix, Arizona
United States of America